Universidad del Valle de México Coyoacán

Equilibrios de Precipitación y solubilidad

Constate del producto de solubilidad

El producto de solubilidad (Kps) de un compuesto ionico es el producto de las concentraciones molares (de equilibrio) de los iones constituyentes, cada una elevada a la potencia del coeficiente estequiométrico en la ecuación de equilibrio.

En general, para una reacción química del tipo:

AaBb(s) = aA+ + bB

la constante del producto de solubilidad es:

Kps(AaBb) = [A+]a∙[B-]b

La constante del producto de solubilidad de un compuesto depende de la temperatura. El valor de Kps indica la solubilidad de un compuesto iónico, es decir, cuanto menor sea su valor menos soluble será el compuesto.

Compuesto Fórmula Kps (25 °C)
Aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 3×10-34
Aluminium phosphate AlPO4 9.84×10-21
Barium bromate Ba(BrO3)2 2.43×10-4
Barium carbonate BaCO3 2.58×10-9
Barium chromate BaCrO4 1.17×10-10
Barium fluoride BaF2 1.84×10-7
Barium hydroxide octahydrate Ba(OH)2×8H2O 2.55×10-4
Barium iodate Ba(IO3)2 4.01×10-9
Barium iodate monohydrate Ba(IO3)2×H2O 1.67×10-9
Barium molybdate BaMoO4 3.54×10-8
Barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2 4.64×10-3
Barium selenate BaSeO4 3.40×10-8
Barium sulfate BaSO4 1.08×10-10
Barium sulfite BaSO3 5.0×10-10
Beryllium hydroxide Be(OH)2 6.92×10-22
Bismuth arsenate BiAsO4 4.43×10-10
Bismuth iodide BiI 7.71×10-19
Cadmium arsenate Cd3(AsO4)2 2.2×10-33
Cadmium carbonate CdCO3 1.0×10-22
Cadmium fluoride CdF2 6.44×10-3
Cadmium hydroxide Cd(OH)2 7.2×10-15
Cadmium iodate Cd(IO3)2 2.5×10-8
Cadmium oxalate trihydrate CdC2O4×3H2O 1.42×10-8
Cadmium phosphate Cd3(PO4)2 2.53×10-33
Cadmium sulfide CdS 1×10-27
Caesium perchlorate CsClO4 3.95×10-3
Caesium periodate CsIO4 5.16×10-6
Calcium carbonate (aragonito) CaCO3 6.0×10-9
Calcium carbonate (calcita) CaCO3 3.36×10-9
Calcium fluoride CaF2 3.45×10-11
Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 5.02×10-6
Calcium iodate Ca(IO3)2 6.47×10-6
Calcium iodate hexahydrate Ca(IO3)2×6H2O 7.10×10-7
Calcium molybdate CaMoO 1.46×10-8
Calcium oxalate monohydrate CaC2O4×H2O 2.32×10-9
Calcium phosphate Ca3(PO4)2 2.07×10-33
Calcium sulfate CaSO4 4.93×10-5
Calcium sulfate dihydrate CaSO4×2H2O 3.14×10-5
Calcium sulfate hemihydrate CaSO4×0.5H2O 3.1×10-7
Cobalt(II) arsenate Co3(AsO4)2 6.80×10-29
Cobalt(II) carbonate CoCO3 1.0×10-10
Cobalt(II) hydroxide (azul) Co(OH)2 5.92×10-15
Cobalt(II) iodate dihydrate Co(IO3)2×2H2O 1.21×10-2
Cobalt(II) phosphate Co3(PO4)2 2.05×10-35
Cobalt(II) sulfide (alfa) CoS 5×10-22
Cobalt(II) sulfide (beta) CoS 3×10-26
Copper(I) bromide CuBr 6.27×10-9
Copper(I) chloride CuCl 1.72×10-7
Copper(I) cyanide CuCN 3.47×10-20
Copper(I) hydroxide Cu2O 2×10-15
Copper(I) iodide CuI 1.27×10-12
Copper(I) thiocyanate CuSCN 1.77×10-13
Copper(II) arsenate Cu3(AsO4)2 7.95×10-36
Copper(II) hydroxide Cu(OH)2 4.8×10-20
Copper(II) iodate monohydrate Cu(IO3)2H2O 6.94×10-8
Copper(II) oxalate CuC2O4 4.43×10-10
Copper(II) phosphate Cu3(PO4)2 1.40×10-37
Copper(II) sulfide CuS 8×10-37
Europium(III) hydroxide Eu(OH)3 9.38×10-27
Gallium(III) hydroxide Ga(OH)3 7.28×10-36
Iron(II) carbonate FeCO3 3.13×10-11
Iron(II) fluoride FeF2 2.36×10-6
Iron(II) hydroxide Fe(OH)2 4.87×10-17
Iron(II) sulfide FeS 8×10-19
Iron(III) hydroxide Fe(OH)3 2.79×10-39
Iron(III) phosphate dihydrate FePO4×2H2O 9.91×10-16
Lanthanum iodate La(IO3)3 7.50×10-12
Lead(II) bromide PbBr2 6.60×10-6
Lead(II) carbonate PbCO3 7.40×10-14
Lead(II) chloride PbCl2 1.70×10-5
Lead(II) chromate PbCrO4 3×10-13
Lead(II) fluoride PbF2 3.3×10-8
Lead(II) hydroxide Pb(OH)2 1.43×10-20
Lead(II) iodate Pb(IO3)2 3.69×10-13
Lead(II) iodide PbI2 9.8×10-9
Lead(II) oxalate PbC2O4 8.5×10-9
Lead(II) selenate PbSeO4 1.37×10-7
Lead(II) sulfate PbSO4 2.53×10-8
Lead(II) sulfide PbS 3×10-28
Lithium carbonate Li2CO3 8.15×10-4
Lithium fluoride LiF 1.84×10-3
Lithium phosphate Li3PO4 2.37×10-4
Magnesium ammonium phosphate MgNH4PO4 3×10-13
Magnesium carbonate MgCO3 6.82×10-6
Magnesium carbonate pentahydrate MgCO3×5H2O 3.79×10-6
Magnesium carbonate trihydrate MgCO3×3H2O 2.38×10-6
Magnesium fluoride MgF2 5.16×10-11
Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 5.61×10-12
Magnesium oxalate dihydrate MgC2O4×2H2O 4.83×10-6
Magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO4)2 1.04×10-24
Manganese(II) carbonate MnCO3 2.24×10-11
Manganese(II) hydroxide Mn(OH)2 2×10-13
Manganese(II) iodate Mn(IO3)2 4.37×10-7
Manganese(II) oxalate dihydrate MnC2O4×2H2O 1.70×10-7
Manganese(II) sulfide (verde) MnS 3×10-14
Manganese(II) sulfide (rosa) MnS 3×10-11
Mercury(I) bromide Hg2Br2 6.40×10-23
Mercury(I) carbonate Hg2CO3 3.6×10-17
Mercury(I) chloride Hg2Cl2 1.43×10-18
Mercury(I) fluoride Hg2F2 3.10×10-6
Mercury(I) iodide Hg2I2 5.2×10-29
Mercury(I) oxalate Hg2C2O4 1.75×10-13
Mercury(I) sulfate Hg2SO4 6.5×10-7
Mercury(I) thiocyanate Hg2(SCN)2 3.2×10-20
Mercury(II) bromide HgBr2 6.2×10-20
Mercury(II) hydroxide HgO 3.6×10-26
Mercury(II) iodide HgI2 2.9×10-29
Mercury(II) sulfide (negro) HgS 2×10-53
Mercury(II) sulfide (rojo) HgS 2×10-54
Neodymium carbonate Nd2(CO3)3 1.08×10-33
Nickel(II) carbonate NiCO3 1.42×10-7
Nickel(II) hydroxide Ni(OH)2 5.48×10-16
Nickel(II) iodate Ni(IO3)2 4.71×10-5
Nickel(II) phosphate Ni3(PO4)2 4.74×10-32
Nickel(II) sulfide (alfa) NiS 4×10-20
Nickel(II) sulfide (beta) NiS 1.3×10-25
Palladium(II) thiocyanate Pd(SCN)2 4.39×10-23
Potassium hexachloroplatinate K2PtCl6 7.48×10-6
Potassium perchlorate KClO4 1.05×10-2
Potassium periodate KIO4 3.71×10-4
Praseodymium hydroxide Pr(OH)3 3.39×10-24
Radium iodate Ra(IO3)2 1.16×10-9
Radium sulfate RaSO4 3.66×10-11
Rubidium perchlorate RuClO4 3.00×10-3
Scandium fluoride ScF3 5.81×10-24
Scandium hydroxide Sc(OH)3 2.22×10-31
Silver(I) acetate AgCH3COO 1.94×10-3
Silver(I) arsenate Ag3AsO4 1.03×10-22
Silver(I) bromate AgBrO3 5.38×10-5
Silver(I) bromide AgBr 5.35×10-13
Silver(I) carbonate Ag2CO3 8.46×10-12
Silver(I) chloride AgCl 1.77×10-10
Silver(I) chromate Ag2CrO4 1.12×10-12
Silver(I) cyanide AgCN 5.97×10-17
Silver(I) iodate AgIO3 3.17×10-8
Silver(I) iodide AgI 8.52×10-17
Silver(I) oxalate Ag2C2O4 5.40×10-12
Silver(I) phosphate Ag3PO4 8.89×10-17
Silver(I) sulfate Ag2SO4 1.20×10-5
Silver(I) sulfide Ag2S 8×10-51
Silver(I) sulfite Ag2SO3 1.50×10-14
Silver(I) thiocyanate AgSCN 1.03×10-12
Strontium arsenate Sr3(AsO4)2 4.29×10-19
Strontium carbonate SrCO3 5.60×10-10
Strontium fluoride SrF2 4.33×10-9
Strontium iodate Sr(IO3)2 1.14×10-7
Strontium iodate hexahydrate Sr(IO3)2×6H2O 4.55×10-7
Strontium iodate monohydrate Sr(IO3)2×H2O 3.77×10-7
Strontium oxalate SrC2O4 5×10-8
Strontium sulfate SrSO4 3.44×10-7
Thallium(I) bromate TlBrO3 1.10×10-4
Thallium(I) bromide TlBr 3.71×10-6
Thallium(I) chloride TlCl 1.86×10-4
Thallium(I) chromate Tl2CrO4 8.67×10-13
Thallium(I) hydroxide Tl(OH)3 1.68×10-44
Thallium(I) iodate TlIO3 3.12×10-6
Thallium(I) iodide TlI 5.54×10-8
Thallium(I) sulfide Tl2S 6×10-22
Thallium(I) thiocyanate TlSCN 1.57×10-4
Tin(II) hydroxide Sn(OH)2 5.45×10-27
Yttrium carbonate Y2(CO3)3 1.03×10-31
Yttrium fluoride YF3 8.62×10-21
Yttrium hydroxide Y(OH)3 1.00×10-22
Yttrium iodate Y(IO3)3 1.12×10-10
Zinc arsenate Zn3(AsO4)2 2.8×10-28
Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 1.46×10-10
Zinc carbonate monohydrate ZnCO3×H2O 5.42×10-11
Zinc fluoride ZnF 3.04×10-2
Zinc hydroxide Zn(OH)2 3×10-17
Zinc iodate dihydrate Zn(IO3)2×2H2O 4.1×10-6
Zinc oxalate dihydrate ZnC2O4×2H2O 1.38×10-9
Zinc selenide ZnSe 3.6×10-26
Zinc selenite monohydrate ZnSe×H2O 1.59×10-7
Zinc sulfide (alfa) ZnS 2×10-25
Zinc sulfide (beta) ZnS 3×10-23

 

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